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Topic-icon 关于马车的系驾法

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2016-09-02 22:22 #1 sweetorture
sweetorture : 关于马车的系驾法
在商代,中国马车和美索不达米亚文明的马车在构造上极为相似,相对年代也很接近。在车辆的系驾方式上,我国古代人民的成就更是值得大书特书的。殷商时代的系驾方式和西方古车大不相同,它不是头式系驾法,而是胸式系驾法。头式系驾法的缺点在于头带压迫马的气管,马奔愈急,则呼吸愈难,马力无法充分发挥,这是西方古车长期未能解决的一个问题。

查到以下资料:
1.Horse harness, ("trace" or "breast"): Throughout the ancient world, the 'throat-and-girth' harness was used for harnessing horses that pulled carts; this greatly limited a horse's ability to exert itself as it was constantly choked at the neck.[309] A painting on a lacquerware box from the State of Chu, dated to the 4th century BC, shows the first known use of a yoke placed across a horses's chest, with traces connecting to the chariot shaft.[310] The hard yoke across the horse's chest was gradually replaced by a breast strap, which was often depicted in carved reliefs and stamped bricks of tombs from the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD).[311] Eventually, the horse collar was invented in China, at least by the 5th century.[306][312]

2.There are two main categories of horse harness, "breaststrap" or "breastcollar" design and the collar and hames design. For light work, such as horse show competition where light carts are used, a harness needs only a breastcollar. It can only be used for lighter hauling, since it places the weight of the load on the sternum of the horse and the nearby windpipe. This is not the heaviest skeletal area; also heavy loads can constrict the windpipe and reduce a horse's air supply.

By contrast, the collar and hames harness places the weight of the load onto the horse's shoulders, and without any restriction on the air supply. For heavy hauling, the harness must include a horse collar to allow the animal to use its full weight and strength.

是否可以确定原文中的头式和胸式其实就是"breaststrap" or "breastcollar" design and the collar and hames design?

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2016-09-02 22:52 #2 中央翻译局
中央翻译局 回复: 关于马车的系驾法
Chest harness vs. head strap?
有以下用户感谢:: sweetorture

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2016-09-02 22:54 #3 sweetorture
sweetorture 回复: 关于马车的系驾法
谢谢,这么翻译的确很简单明了。不过我还想确定这些名词的对应关系。

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2016-09-02 22:58 #4 中央翻译局
中央翻译局 回复: 关于马车的系驾法
我瞎说,没有研究,你的态度是对的。

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2016-09-02 23:52 - 2016-09-02 23:56 #5 sweetorture
sweetorture 回复: 关于马车的系驾法
来捋顺一下英文资料里的时间和名词:
楚国( the 4th century BC)的漆器画证明yoke(轭)已经出现,
然后东汉 (202 BC – 220 AD)墓葬中的浮雕和印花砖什么的显示已为a breast strap*(胸带)所取代,
最后至少在公元5世纪形成the horse collar(马颈轭)。

“头式系驾法”对应的英文有 the 'throat-and-girth' harness(喉-肚带), "breaststrap"(胸带) or "breastcollar"(胸颈带) design
“胸式系驾法”: the collar and hames design(马颈轭)

原文的中文表达其实与现实不符,两者的区别在于yoke(后来为breast strap所取代)的出现把原来施于马脖子上的力量转到了马的肩上。
问题是殷商时期就有yoke了吗?yoke是最初的形式吗?

补充一点中文资料:
直至公元8世纪前,西方驾驭马匹的惟一手段是“喉-肚带挽具”(throat-and-girth harness)。这种方法有一个很大的弊病:皮带特别容易勒住马的咽喉,马用力越大,皮带会将咽喉勒得越紧,结果自然会使马窒息。这种现象在骑兵作战时表现得更明显。不论马和骑手多么好,远距离骑马都会遇到严重的障碍。而劣马则不仅容易疲劳,而且会闷塞至半死。正因这一点,不论是古希腊还是古罗马,都没有建立强大的骑兵部队。由于这一致命的弱点,“喉-肚带挽具”法驾驭的马匹很难拉负重的车辆。之所以当时罗马也好、古希腊也好,他们的马车都很轻,就是这个原因。用这种方法长途运输大量粮食,压根就不可能。在欧洲人深陷马匹不能负重的苦恼之时,相同的难题在公元前4世纪的中国就不再发生。聪明的中国人已放弃“喉-肚带挽具”,而使用一种更合理的“胸带挽具”,这样马的喉部就再也没有负载了,负重则由马胸骨和锁骨来承担。
最后修改: 2016-09-02 23:56 由 sweetorture.

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