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Topic-icon 关于there be句型的主谓一致问题,向大家请教

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2001-07-25 00:28 - 2001-07-26 12:43 #1 westbank
今有一学生来问
There a pen and a bag on the desk.
A: are B: is C: be D:have
他选B。我说从语法“主谓一致”上讲,应选A。他说B正确,并且搬出了“九年义务教育三年制初级中学教科书(试用修订本)《英语》第一册(上)”做证。
在Unit 11, Lesson 44第三部分Touch and answer里有“Let me see,I think there's a pen and a bag on the desk." 。
在Unit 16, Lesson 61 第一部分Read, ask and answer里有“A: What's on the wall? B:There's a clock and two pictures.”
我说在口语里这确实是正确的。如There's some people in the waiting room. There's several bags still missing. There's only two pounds of butter and a few packets of tea left. 况且这里是由于毗邻吸引原则的影响,与形式主语there相一致了。
但这道题似乎是在考语法,不是口语。我给搞愣了。我又不是教学的,手头无教师用书,真不知如何让他满意而去。谁出的这道题是不是在与教科书开玩笑。请教诸位,我如何向他解释才好呢。


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2001-07-25 08:24 - 2001-07-25 08:24 #2 xmjoan
Replied by xmjoan on topic RE:
我认为答案是B。
在语法中,有一种叫什么“靠近”还是“就近”的原则。而在THERE BE的用法中,正好有一种情况适合这种原则。正确的用法例子:
There is a book on the desk.
There are some children in the classroom.
There are two pens and a book on the desk.
There is a pen and a bag on the desk.
也就是说,当THERE BE 后面如果跟有两个并列的名词,则THERE BE 的单复数形式应与第一个名词的一致。
由于没有再翻看语法书,可能解释得不够确切。你可以再查找一下相关的语法书看看。
但有一点可以肯定,那就是答案一定是B。

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2001-07-25 08:41 - 2001-07-25 08:41 #3 xmjoan
Replied by xmjoan on topic RE:
补充一下,刚刚查了语法词典,是这样写的:
主谓一致中的靠近原则
1)当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
 There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk..
 There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.

2)当either… or… 与neither… nor, 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
 Either you or she is to go.
 Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.





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2001-07-26 12:43 - 2001-07-26 12:43 #4 westbank
Replied by westbank on topic RE:
多谢xmjoan。十几年没多看过语法书了。今搬了张道真《实用英语语法》、章振邦《新编英语语法》等语法书。
同时查阅了A Grammar of Contemporary English
在7.23[注][a]中说,“没标明一定要用复数的主语,用单数动词”。“这一点……,还说明在非正式的谈话中下列存在句中的假拟主语(pseudosubject) "there"后有用is 和was的倾向:There's hundreds of people on the waiting list.”
在7.30注中说,“如果接近(proximity)的原则可表示这种意思:一致性是由紧邻动词前的成分决定,那么它就可解释,在倒装句或含状语性准主语(quasi-subject)的句子中动词用单数的原因: Where's the scissors?; Here's John and Mary; There's several bags missing(7.63f, 14.15, 14.26)。 因为这里主语前的成分并没标明是复数(7.23[注][ a]),所以根据形态同化,它后面用单数动词,这是口语的情况,在正式语体中用不着 are代替。
在14.26中“……(a)there 也常决定呼应关系。即使后面的表意主语是复数,它也可以对用动词的单数起支配作用。(见7.23注[a]):there's some people in the waiting room(非正式)与下句并不冲突:There are some people in the waiting room.”
胡鑫镛《英语语法五十题》(上海教育出版社,1983年)在18.21中说“类似情况在正式英语中也有,一般分为四种情况:
(1)如果主语用的复数名词表示总量或总数。(2)如果复合主语表示单一的概念。there is my wife and my family to consider. (3) 涉及某一综合性的情况。(4)在例举事物时如果说话者认为动词谓语分别适用于每一列举事物,那么也可以用单数谓语动词。Let me see. There's John, James,Alec, Tom....

从上语法书及“修订本”教科书上,可以看到,在本题的情况下,在复数主语前只有There's,并未见有there is或there was 的形式。所以我认为那道题,还是应选A。除非要选择是用there's 还是选there're时,there's才更优先,但这样的话这道题就出得有问题了。因为两者都可以。
其实我认为这道题本身出得就有问题,似乎A和B都行,只是A更合语法,而B从观念一致上讲正确,用于口语体。如句是there is only a book and a pen on the desk.才叫人觉得选is比较合适。



Edited by - westbank 重新编辑於 2001/07/26 12:44:45

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